Notes on the plants of Bakossi, Cameroon, and the new Cola etugei and Cola kodminensis (Sterculiaceae s. str.)
PDF

Keywords

cloud forest
conservation
Cross-Sanaga Interval
Important Plant Areas
submontane forest
TIPA

How to Cite

Cheek, M., Tchiengue, B. and Baldwin, I. (2020) “Notes on the plants of Bakossi, Cameroon, and the new Cola etugei and Cola kodminensis (Sterculiaceae s. str.)”, Plant Ecology and Evolution, 153(1), pp. 108-119. doi: 10.5091/plecevo.2020.1662.

Abstract

Background and aims – This paper reports a further discovery during preparation for a monograph of the genus Cola, and also in the context of a long-term botanical survey in the Cross River-Sanaga interval of west-central Africa, focussing on species discovery and conservation through the Tropical Important Plant Areas programme.
Methods – Normal practices of herbarium taxonomy have been applied to study the material collected. The relevant collections are stored in the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London (K) and at the Institute of Research in Agronomic Development – National Herbarium of Cameroon (YA).
Key results – Two species new to science, small trees or shrubs of cloud forest, are formally named from the Bakossi tribal area and assessed for their conservation status. Cola etugei, is endemic to the western slopes of Mt Kupe with conservation status assessed as Critically Endangered (CR B1+2ab(iii)) according to the 2012 criteria of IUCN. Cola kodminensis from the Bakossi Mts is also assessed as Critically Endangered (CR B1+2ab(iii)). This publication increases the number of documented narrowly endemic, threatened species in the Bakossi tribal area, and helps make the case for formal protection of Mt Kupe, which with 33 endemic and near-endemic plant species remains an extremely high candidate for such protection. Further effort is needed to publish the remaining informally named species of this location, and investment to support the protection of the mountain by local communities.

https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2020.1662
PDF

References

Bachman S., Moat J., Hill A.W., de la Torre J., Scott B. (2011) Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool. In: Smith V., Penev L. (eds) e-Infrastructures for data publishing in biodiversity science. ZooKeys 150: 117–126. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.150.2109

Bachman S.P., Nic Lughadha E.M., Rivers M.C. (2018) Quantifying progress towards a conservation assessment for all plants. Conservation Biology 32(3): 516–524. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.13071

Bachman S.P., Field R., Reader T., Raimondo D., Donaldson J., Schatz G.E., Nic Lughadha E.M. (2019) Progress, challenges and opportunities for Red Listing. Biological Conservation 234: 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2019.03.002

Barthlott W., Lauer W., Placke A. (1996) Global distribution of species diversity in vascular plants: towards a world map of phytodiversity. Erkunde 50(4): 317–328 (with supplement and figure).

Baum D., Alverson W., Nyffeler R. (1998) A durian by any other name: taxonomy and nomenclature of the core Malvales. Harvard Papers in Botany 3(2): 315–330. http://www.jstor.org/stable/41761576

Bayer C., Kubitzki K. (2003) Malvaceae. In: Kubitzki K., Bayer C. (eds) The families and genera of vascular plants: flowering plants dicotyledons, vol. 5: 225–311. Berlin, Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-07255-4_28

Bayer C., Fay M.F., De Bruijn A.Y., Savolainen V., Morton C.M., Kubitzki K., Alverson W.S., Chase M.W. (1999) Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: a combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL DNA sequences. Botanical Journal of The Linnean Society 129(4): 267–303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.1999.tb00505.x

Breteler F.J. (2014) Novitates Gabonenses 83. Two new species of Cola (Sterculiaceae s. str.) from Gabon with an introductory note on the subdivision of the genus. Plant Ecology and Evolution 147(1): 101–107. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2014.794

Cable S., Cheek M. (1998) The plants of Mt Cameroon: a conservation checklist. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Champluvier D., Darbyshire I. (2009) A revision of the genera Brachystephanus and Oreacanthus (Acanthaceae) in tropical Africa. Systematics and Geography of Plants 79: 115–192.

Cheek M. (2002a) Three new species of Cola (Sterculiaceae) from Western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 57(2): 403–415. https://doi.org/10.2307/4111117

Cheek M. (2002b) A new species of Cola (Sterculiaceae) from the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Kew Bulletin 57(2): 417–422. https://doi.org/10.2307/4111119

Cheek M. (2003) A new species of Ledermanniella (Podostemaceae) from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 58: 733–737. https://doi.org/10.2307/4111153

Cheek M. (2006) A new species of Keetia (Rubiaceae-Vanguerieae) from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 61(4): 591–594. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20443303

Cheek. M. (2007) Sterculiaceae. In: Heywood V.H., Brummitt R.K., Culham A., Seberg O. (eds) Flowering plant families of the world: 311–312. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Cheek M. (2009) Mussaenda epiphytica sp. nov. (Rubiaceae) an epiphytic shrub from cloud forest of the Bakossi Mts, western Cameroon. Nordic Journal of Botany 27(6): 456 –459. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-1051.2009.00576.x

Cheek M. (2017) Microcos magnifica (Sparrmanniaceae) a new species of cloudforest tree from Cameroon. PeerJ 5: 24137. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4137

Cheek M., Cable S. (1997) Plant inventory for conservation management: the Kew-Earthwatch programme in Western Cameroon, 1993–96. In: Doolan S. (ed.) African rainforests and the conservation of biodiversity: 29–38. Oxford, Earthwatch Europe.

Cheek M., Csiba L. (2002) A new epiphytic species of Impatiens (Balsaminaceae) from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 57(3): 669–674. https://doi.org/10.2307/4110997

Cheek M., Dorr L. (2007) Sterculiaceae. In: Beentje H.E., Ghazanfar S.A. (eds) Flora of Tropical East Africa. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Cheek M., Etuge M. (2009) Deinbollia oreophila (Sapindaceae), a new submontane species from Western Cameroon and adjoining Nigeria. Kew Bulletin 64: 503–508. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9132-4

Cheek M., Sonké B. (2004) Psydrax bridsoniana (Rubiaceae), a new species of tree from Western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 59(4): 605–608. https://doi.org/10.2307/4110919

Cheek M., Sonké B. (2005) Two further new species of Psychotria (Rubiaceae) from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 60(2): 293–300. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4110940

Cheek M., Woodgyer E. (2007) New data on Amphiblemma monticola Jacq.-Fél. (Melastomataceae) from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 61(4): 601–604. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20443305

Cheek M., Cable S., Hepper F.N., Ndam N., Watts J. (1996) Mapping plant biodiversity on Mt. Cameroon. In: van der Maesen L.G.J., van der Berg X.M., van Medenbach de Rooy J.M. (eds) The biodiversity of African plants. Proceedings of the XIVth AETFAT Congress: 110–120. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Cheek M., Onana J.-M., Pollard B.J. (2000) The plants of Mount Oku and the Ijim Ridge, Cameroon: a conservation checklist. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Cheek M., Mackinder B., Gosline G., Onana J.-M., Achoundong G. (2001) The phytogeography and flora of western Cameroon and the Cross River-Sanaga River interval. Systematics and Geography of Plants 71(2): 1097–1100. https://doi.org/10.2307/3668742

Cheek M., Csiba L., Bridson D. (2002a) A new species of Coffea (Rubiaceae) from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 57(3): 675–680. https://doi.org/10.2307/4110998

Cheek M., Gosline G., Csiba L. (2002b) A new species of Rhaptopetalum (Scytopetalaceae) from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 57(3): 661–667. https://doi.org/10.2307/4110996

Cheek M., Williams S.A., Etuge M. (2003) Kupea martinetugei, a new genus and species of Triuridaceae from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 58(1): 225–228. https://doi.org/10.2307/4119366

Cheek M., Pollard B.J., Darbyshire I., Onana J.-M., Wild C. (2004) The plants of Kupe, Mwanenguba and the Bakossi Mountains, Cameroon: a conservation checklist. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Cheek M., Corcoran M., Horwath A. (2009) Four new submontane species of Psychotria (Rubiaceae) with bacterial nodules from western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 63: 405–418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-008-9056-4

Cheek M., Harvey Y., Onana J.-M. (2010) The plants of Dom, Bamenda Highlands, Cameroon: a conservation checklist. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Cheek M., Alvarez-Agiurre M.G., Grall A., Sonké B., Howes M.-J.R., Larridon L. (2018a) Kupeantha (Coffeeae, Rubiaceae), a new genus from Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. PLoS ONE 13: 20199324. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199324

Cheek M., Gosline G., Onana J.-M. (2018b) Vepris bali (Rutaceae), a new critically endangered (possibly extinct) cloud forest tree species from Bali Ngemba, Cameroon. Willdenowia 48(2): 285–292. https://doi.org/10.3372/wi.48.48207

Cheek M., Lawrence P., McCleland W. (2018c) Cola dorrii sp. nov. (Sterculiaceae), a threatened Maputaland Forest endemic of South Africa. Kew Bulletin 73: 25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-018-9749-2

Cheek M., Prenner G., Tchiengué B., Faden R.B. (2018d) Notes on the endemic plant species of the Ebo Forest, Cameroon, and the new, Critically Endangered, Palisota ebo (Commelinaceae). Plant Ecology and Evolution 151(3): 434–441. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2018.1503

Cheek M., Tsukaya H., Rudall P.J., Suetsugu K. (2018e) Taxonomic monograph of Oxygyne (Thismiaceae), rare achlorophyllous mycoheterotrophs with strongly disjunct distribution. PeerJ 6: e4828. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.4828

Cheek M., Luke Q., Matimele H., Banze A., Lawrence P. (2019a) Cola species of the limestone forests of Africa, with a new, endangered species, Cola cheringoma (Sterculiaceae), from Cheringoma, Mozambique. Kew Bulletin 74: 52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-019-9840-3

Cheek M., Ngo Ngwe F., Onana J.-M., Ugbogu O. (2019b) (2681) Proposal to conserve the name Cola cauliflora (Sterculiaceae) with a conserved type. Taxon 68(2): 407–408. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12045

Cheek M., Etuge M., Williams S. (2019c) Afrothismia kupensis sp. nov. (Thismiaceae), Critically Endangered, with observations on its pollination and notes on the endemics of Mt Kupe, Cameroon. Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants 64(1): 158–164. https://doi.org/10.3767/blumea.2019.64.02.06

Darbyshire I., Cheek M. (2004) A new species of Peucedanum L. (Umbelliferae) from Mt Kupe, Western Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 59(1): 133–136. https://doi.org/10.2307/4111086

Darbyshire I., Anderson S., Asatryan A., et al. (2017) Important Plant Areas: revised selection criteria for a global approach to plant conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 26: 1767–1800. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-017-1336-6

Exell A.W., Mendonça F.A. (1951) Diogoa zenkeri (Engl.) Exell & Mendonça (Olacaceae). Boletim da Sociedade Broteriana, sér. 2

: 109.

Franke T. (2004) Afrothismia saingei (Burmanniaceae, Thismieae), a new myco-heterotrophic plant from Cameroon. Systematics and Geography of Plants 74(1): 27–33. http://www.jstor.org/stable/3668554

Germain R. (1963) Cola. In: Germain R., Hauman L., Robyns A. (eds) Flore du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi, vol. 10: 277–316. Brussels, INÉAC.

Gosline G., Cheek M. (1998) A new species of Diospyros (Ebenaceae) from Southwest Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 53(2): 461–465. https://doi.org/10.2307/4114512

Hallé N. (1961) Cola. In: Aubréville A., Hallé N. (eds) Flore du Gabon, vol. 2: 38–104. Paris, Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle.

Harvey Y., Pollard B.J., Darbyshire I., Onana J.-M., Cheek M. (2004) The plants of Bali Ngemba Forest Reserve, Cameroon: a conservation checklist. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Harvey Y.H., Tchiengue B., Cheek M. (2010) The plants of the Lebialem Highlands: a conservation checklist. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Hoffmann P., Cheek M. (2003) Two new species of Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) from Southwest Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 58(2): 437–446. https://doi.org/10.2307/4120626

IPNI (continuously updated) The International Plant Names Index. Available at https://www.ipni.org/ [accessed 1 Mar. 2018].

IUCN (2012) IUCN red list categories: Version 3.1. Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, U.K., IUCN Species Survival Commission. Available at https://www.iucn.org/content/iucn-red-list-categories-and-criteria-version-31 [accessed 20 Jan. 2020].

Jongkind C. (2013) Cola baldwinii (Malvaceae: Sterculioideae), a new forest tree species from Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinée. Plant Ecology and Evolution 146(2): 246–249. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2013.801

Keay R.W.J, Brenan J.P.M. (1958) Cola. In: Keay R.W.J. (ed.) Flora of West Tropical Africa, vol. 1(2): 321–332. London, Crown Agents.

Kenfack D., Gosline G., Gereau R.E., Schatz G. (2003) The genus Uvariopsis in Tropical Africa, with a recombination and one new species from Cameroon. Novon 13(4): 443–449. https://doi.org/10.2307/3393377

Kenfack D., Sainge M.N., Chuyong G.B., Thomas D.W. (2018) The genus Cola (Malvaceae) in Cameroon’s Korup National Park, with two novelties. Plant Ecology and Evolution 151(2): 241–251. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2018.1410

Lachenaud O. (2019) Révision du genre Psychotria (Rubiaceae) en Afrique occidentale et centrale. Opera Botanica Belgica, vol. 17(1). Meise, Botanic Garden Meise.

Linnaeus C. (1782) Supplementum Plantarum Systematis Vegetabilium Editionis decimae tertiae, Generum Plantarum Editionis sextae, et Specierum Plantarum Editionis secundae. Brunsvigae, Orphanotrophei [Braunschweig, Orphanotrophe]. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.555

Maas-van de Kamer H., Maas P.J.M., Wieringa J.J., Specht C.D. (2016) Monograph of African Costaceae. Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants 61(3): 280–318. https://doi.org/10.3767/000651916X694445

Mackinder B., Cheek M. (2003) A new species of Newtonia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) from Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 58(2): 447–452. https://doi.org/10.2307/4120627

Mackinder B.A., Wieringa J.J., van der Burgt X.M. (2010) A revision of the genus Talbotiella Baker f. (Caesalpinioideae: Leguminosae). Kew Bulletin 65: 401–420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-010-9217-0

Mwachala G., Cheek M., Fischer E., Muasya A.M. (2007) A new species of Dracaena L. (Dracaenaceae-Ruscaceae) from Mt Kupe and the Bakossi Mts, Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 62(4): 613–616. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20443393

Nic Lughadha E., Govaerts R., Belyaeva I., Black N., Lindon H., Allkin R., Magill R.E., Nicolson N. (2016) Counting counts: revised estimates of numbers of accepted species of flowering plants, seed plants, vascular plants and land plants with a review of other recent estimates. Phytotaxa 272(1): 82–88. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.272.1.5

Nic Lughadha E., Bachman S.P., Govaerts R. (2017) Plant fates and states: response to Pimm and Raven. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 32(12): 887–889. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2017.09.005

Onana J.-M. (2011) The vascular plants of Cameroon: a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments. Flore du Cameroun, vol 39. Yaoundé, Cameroon, Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation.

Onana J.-M., Cheek M. (2011) Red Data book of the flowering plants of Cameroon, IUCN global assessments. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Schumann K. (1900) Sterculiaceae Africanae. In: Engler A. (ed.) Monographieen afrikanischer Pflanzen-familien und Gattungen, vol. V. Leipzig, Engelmann.

Simpson D.A., Lye K.A., Cheek M. (2004) Hypolytrum pseudomapanioides (Cyperaceae), a new species from Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 59(4): 613–615. https://doi.org/10.2307/4110921

Sosef M.S.M., Wieringa J.J., Jongkind C.C.H., Achoundong G., Azizet Issembé Y., Bedigian D., van den Berg R.G., Breteler F.J., Cheek M., Degreef J. (2005) Checklist of Gabonese Vascular Plants. Scripta Botanica Belgica, vol. 35. Meise, National Botanic Garden of Belgium.

Stoffelen P., Cheek M., Bridson D., Robbrecht E. (1997) A new species of Coffea (Rubiaceae) and notes on Mt Kupe (Cameroon). Kew Bulletin 52(4): 989–994. https://doi.org/10.2307/4117826

Stone R.D., Ghogue J.-P., Cheek M. (2008) Revised treatment of Memecylon sect. Afzeliana (Melastomataceae: Olisbeoideae), including three new species from Cameroon. Kew Bulletin 63: 227–241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-008-9033-y

Szlachetko L., Olsewski S. (2001) Orchidacées (Vol. 2). Flore Du Cameroun, vol. 35. Yaoundé, Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation.

Thiers B. (continuously updated) Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. [continuously updated]. Available at http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/ [accessed 1 Mar. 2018].

Turland N.J., Wiersema J.H., Barrie F.R., Greuter W., Hawksworth D.L., Herendeen P.S., Knapp S., Kusber, W-H., Li D-Z., Marhold K., May T.W., McNeill J., Monro A.M., Prado J., Price M.J., Smith G.F. (2018) (eds) International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Shenzhen Code) adopted by the Nineteenth International Botanical Congress Shenzhen, China, July 2017. Regnum Vegetabile 159. Glashütten, Koeltz Botanical Books. https://doi.org/10.12705/Code.2018

Turrill W.B. (1912) Graptophyllum glandulosum. In: Diagnoses Africanae, L. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew) 1912(7): 328–338. https://doi.org/10.2307/4104549

Wild C. (2004) The physical environment. In: Cheek M., Pollard B.J., Darbyshire I., Onana J.-M., Wild C. (eds) The plants of Kupe, Mwanenguba and the Bakossi Mountains, Cameroon: a conservation checklist: 17–23. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Wilkie P., Clark A., Pennington R.T., Cheek M., Bayer C., Wilcock C.C. (2006) Phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily Sterculioideae (Malvaceae/Sterculiaceae-Sterculieae) using the chloroplast gene ndhF. Systematic Botany 31(1): 160–170. https://doi.org/10.1600/036364406775971714

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.