Synopsis of the genus Vitex (Lamiaceae) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
cover of volume 151 issue 3
PDF

Keywords

taxonomy
Vitex
identification key
Central Africa
lectotypification
revision

How to Cite

Meerts, P. (2018) “Synopsis of the genus Vitex (Lamiaceae) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo”, Plant Ecology and Evolution, 151(3), pp. 380-392. doi: 10.5091/plecevo.2018.1504.

Abstract

Background and aims – The genus Vitex is revised for the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D.R. Congo), in order to prepare the treatment of the genus for the Flore d’Afrique Centrale.
Methods – Herbarium taxonomy. All the relevant material kept in BM, BR, BRLU, COI, K, P, POZG, WAG has been examined, supplemented with recent field observations in S Katanga.
Key results – A total of 21 taxa are reported for the study area, i.e. 17 species, 1 subspecies, 3 varieties. Two taxa are new to the D.R. Congo (V. ciliata, V. fischeri var. keniensis). Four taxa (3 species, 1 variety) are endemic to the D.R. Congo (Vitex agelaeifolia var. rufula, V. discoideoglandulosa, V. djumaensis, V. rubroaurantiaca). Two other taxa are subendemic, i.e. have most of their range in D.R. Congo (Vitex congolensis var. thomasii, V. cuspidata). Two new combinations are made (Vitex congolensis var. thomasii, V. fischeri var. keniensis). Nine new synonyms are proposed. A lectotype is designated for 17 names and a second-step lectotype is designated for one name. An identification key is included.

https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2018.1504
PDF

References

Ahenda J.O. (1999) Taxonomy and genetic structure of Meru Oak populations, Vitex keniensis Turrill and Vitex fischeri Gürke, in East Africa. PhD. thesis, University of Wageningen, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Albuquerque S., Brummitt R.K., Figueiredo E. (2009) Typification of names based on the Angolan collections of Friedrich Welwitsch. Taxon 58: 641–646.

Aubréville A. (1950) Flore forestière soudano-guinéenne. Paris, Société d’Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales.

Aubréville A. (1956) Flore forestière de Côte d’Ivoire. 3. Nogent-sur-Marne, Centre technique forestier tropical.

Baker J.G. (1895) Vitex thyrsiflora. In: Diagnoses Africanae, VI. Bulletin of Miscellaneous information 1985(102–103): 141–153. https://doi.org/10.2307/4114935

Baker J.G. (1900) Vitex. In: Thiselton-Dyer W.T. (ed.) Flora of tropical Africa 5(2): 315–332. London, Lovell Reeve & Co.

Beentje H.J. (1994) Kenya trees, shrubs and lianas. Nairobi, National Museums of Kenya.

Bredenkamp C.L., Botha D.J. (1996) FSA contributions 7: Verbenaceae: Vitex. Bothalia 26: 141–151. https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v26i2.698

Briquet J. (1895) Verbenaceae. In: Engler A., Prantl K. (eds) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien IV(3a): 132–182. Leipzig, W. Engelmann.

Britten J. (1894) Monopetalae. In: The Plants of Milanji, Nyasa-land. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Series 2, Botany 4: 16–37.

Büttner R. (1890) Neue Arten von Guinea, dem Kongo und dem Quango. II. Verbenaceae. Verhandlungen des Botanischen Vereins für die Provinz Brandenburg 32: 35–37.

Cabral C. (2013) Multidisciplinary taxonomic revision in the genus Vitex L. in Africa. Saarbrücken, Lambert Academic Publishing.

Coates Palgrave K, Coates Palgrave M. (2005) Trees of Southern Africa. 3rd Ed. Cape Town, Struik Nature.

Delevoy G. (1929) La question forestière au Katanga. II. Les essences forestières au Katanga. Bruxelles, Comité Spécial du Katanga.

Delevoy G. (1931) Etudes systématiques sur les bois du Katanga. VI. Bruxelles, Comité spécial du Katanga.

Devred R. (1956) Les savanes herbeuses de la région de Mvuazi (Bas-Congo). Bruxelles, Institut national pour l’étude agronomique du Congo.

De Wildeman E. (1903a) Etudes sur la flore du Katanga. Annales du Musée du Congo Belge, Botanique, Série IV, vol. 3: 81–241.

De Wildeman E. (1903b) Etudes de systématique et de géographie botaniques sur la Flore du Bas- et Moyen-Congo. Annales du Musée du Congo, Botanique, Série V, vol. 1(1).

De Wildeman E. (1909) Etudes sur la flore du Bas- et du Moyen-Congo. Annales du Musée du Congo, Botanique, Série V, vol. 3(1): 1–147.

De Wildeman E. (1910a) Etudes sur la flore du Bas- et du Moyen-Congo. Annales du Musée du Congo, Botanique, Série V, vol. 3(2): 149–316.

De Wildeman E. (1910b) Compagnie du Kasaï. Mission permanente d’études scientifiques. Résultats de ses recherches botaniques et agronomiques. Bruxelles, Lesigne.

De Wildeman E. (1911) Etude sur la Flore des districts des Bangala et de l’Ubangi (Congo belge). Plantae Thonnerianae Congolenses. Série II. Bruxelles, Misch & Thron.

De Wildeman E. (1912a) Etudes sur la flore du Bas- et du Moyen-Congo. Annales du Musée du Congo, Botanique, Série V, vol. 3(3): 317–533.

De Wildeman E. (1912b) Documents pour l’étude de la géo-botanique congolaise. Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 51(3): 1–406.

De Wildeman E. (1914a) Decades novarum specierum florae Katangensis. XIX–XXI. Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis 13: 137–147. https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.19140130904

De Wildeman E. (1914b) Additions à la Flore du Congo. Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’État à Bruxelles 4: 1–241. https://doi.org/10.2307/3666479

De Wildeman E. (1914c) Notes sur la flore du Katanga. Annales de la Société scientifique de Bruxelles 38: 353–465.

De Wildeman E. (1921) Contribution à l’étude de la flore du Katanga. Bruxelles, Comité spécial du Katanga. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11020

De Wildeman E. (1926) Les forêts congolaises et leurs principales essences économiques. Bruxelles, Goemaere.

De Wildeman E. (1929a) Plantae Bequaertianae 5(1). Paris, Lechevalier.

De Wildeman E. (1929b) Contribution à la flore du Katanga. Supplément 2. Bruxelles, Comité spécial du Katanga.

De Wildeman E., Durand T. (1900) Contributions à la flore du Congo. Annales du Musée du Congo, Botanique, Série II, vol. 1: 1–95.

De Wildeman E., Durand T. (1901) Reliquiae Dewevreanae. Annales du Musée du Congo, Botanique, Série III, vol. 2: 81–291.

Durand E., De Wildeman E. (1898) Matériaux pour la flore du Congo. 2. Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 37: 44–128.

Durand E., De Wildeman E. (1899) Matériaux pour la flore du Congo. 5. Bulletin de la Société Royale de Botanique de Belgique 38: 120–151.

Durand T., Durand H. (1909) Sylloge Florae Congolanae [Phanerogamae]. Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’État à Bruxelles 2: 1–716. https://doi.org/10.2307/3666516

Durand T., Schinz H. (1896) Etudes sur la flore de l’état indépendant du Congo. 1. Bruxelles, Académie royale des sciences des arts et des belles lettres.

Gürke R.L.A.M. (1893) Verbenaceae africanae. Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 18: 165–183.

Gürke R.L.A.M. (1895) Verbenaceae. In: Engler A. (ed.) Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete: 339–340. Berlin, Dietrich Reimer.

Gürke R.L.A.M. (1903) Verbenaceae africanae 3. Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 33: 292–300.

Harley R.M., Atkin S., Budanstev A.L., Cantino P.D., Conn B.J., Grayer R., Harley M.M., de Tok R., Krestovskaja T., Morales R., Paton A. J., Ryding, O., Upson T. (2004) Labiatae. In: Kubitzki K. (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants, vol. 7: 167–275. Berlin, Springer Verlag.

Hepper F.N. (1976) West African Herbaria of Isert and Thonning. Kew, Bentham-Moxon Trust.

Hiern W.P. (1900) Catalogue of African plants collected by Dr Friedrich Welwitsch in 1853–1861. Dicotyledons. IV. London, Longmans.

Huber H., Hepper F.N., Meikle R.D. (1963) Verbenaceae. In: Hepper F.N. (ed.) Flora of West Tropical Africa, 2nd Ed., vol. 2: 432–448. London, Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.

Kotschy T., Peyritsch I. (1867) Plantae Tinneanae: sive descriptio plantarum in expeditione tinneana ad flumen Bahr-el-Ghasal eiusque affluentias in septentrionali interioris Africae parte collectarum. Vindobonae (Vienna), Caroli Gerold Filii. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.695

Latham P., Konda ku Mbuta A. (2010) Plantes utiles du Bas-Congo, République Démocratique du Congo. 2nd Ed. Mystole, Mystole Publications.

Lebrun J.-P., Stork A. (1997) Enumération des plantes à fleurs d’Afrique. IV. Genève, Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève.

Li B., Cantino P.D., Olmstead R.G., Bramley G.L.C., Xiang C.-L., Ma Z.-H., Tan Y.-H., Zhang D.-X. (2016) A large-scale chloroplast phylogeny of the Lamiaceae sheds new light on its subfamilial classification. Scientific Reports 6: 34343. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep34343

Linnaeus C. (1753) Species Plantarum. 2. Stockholm, Laurentius Salvius.

Mabberley D.J. (2017) Mabberley’s Plant-book. 4th Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316335581

McNeill J., Turland N.J., Barrie F.R., Buck W.R., Greuter W., Wiersema J.H. (2012) International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi, and Plants. Regnum Vegetabile 154. Konigstein, Koeltz Scientific Books.

Meerts P. (2016) An annotated checklist to the trees and shrubs of the Upper Katanga (D.R. Congo). Phytotaxa 258: 201–250. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.258.3.1

Meerts P., Hasson M. (2016) Arbres et arbustes du Haut-Katanga. Meise, Agentschap Plantentuin Meise.

Merrill E.D. (1935) A commentary on Loureiro’s “Flora Cochinchinensis”. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series 24(2): 1–445. https://doi.org/10.2307/1005470

Moldenke H.N. (1952) Notes on new and noteworthy plants. XIII. Phytologia 4: 41–64.

Moldenke H.N. (1955a) Materials towards a monograph of the genus Vitex. I. Phytologia 5: 142–176.

Moldenke H.N. (1955b) Materials towards a monograph of the genus Vitex. IV. Phytologia 5: 293–336.

Moldenke H.N. (1956) Materials towards a monograph of the genus Vitex. VI. Phytologia 5: 404–464.

Moldenke H.N. (1957) Materials towards a monograph of the genus Vitex. VIII. Phytologia 6: 13–64.

Moldenke H.N. (1958a) Materials towards a monograph of the genus Vitex. X. Phytologia 6: 129–192.

Moldenke H.N. (1958b) Materials towards a monograph of the genus Vitex. XI. Phytologia 6: 197–231.

Moldenke H.N. (1967) Additional notes on the genus Vitex V. Phytologia 15: 304–325.

Moldenke H.N. (1968) Additional notes on the genus Vitex VIII. Phytologia 17: 8–56.

Oliver D. (1875) Dicotyledones (concluded). In: The botany of the Speke and Grant expedition. III. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 29: 103–151. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1875.tb00234.x

Pauwels L. (1993) Nzayilu N’ti. Guide des arbres et arbustes de la région de Kinshasa-Brazzaville. Meise, Jardin botanique national de Belgique.

Pellegrin F. (1927) Plantae Letestuanae novae ou plantes nouvelles récoltées par M. Le Testu de 1907 à 1911 dans le Mayombe congolais. XIII. Loganiaceae (suite). Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris 33: 267–269.

Pieper W. (1928) Vorarbeiten zu einer Revision der afrikanischen Vitex–Arten mit Berücksichtigung der übrigen. Botanische Jahrbücher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 62, Beibl. 141 (“142”): 1–91 (+ XIII tables).

Pieper W. (1929) Neue und noch nicht beschriebene Arten der Gattung Vitex aus Afrika. Feddes Repertorium Specierum novarum regni vegetabilis 26: 161–166. https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.19290260704

Robyns W. (1947) Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc national Albert. II. Sympétales. Bruxelles, Institut des Parcs Nationaux du Congo belge.

Sales F. (2001) A synopsis of Vitex L. in the Flora Zambesiaca area. Kew Bulletin 56: 189–207. https://doi.org/10.2307/4119435

Sales F. (2005) Vitex. In: Pope E.V., Martins E.S. (eds) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 73–92. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Schumacher C.F. (1827) Beskrivelse af Guineiske Planter som ere Fundne af Danske Botanikere, Isaet af Etatsraad Thonning ved F. C. Schumacher. Copenhaguen, Popp.

Smith P., Allen Q. (2004) Field guide to the trees and shrubs of the miombo woodlands. Kew, Royal Botanic Gardens.

Sosef M.S.M. (2016) Producing the Flore d’Afrique Centrale, past, present and future. Taxon 65: 937–939. https://doi.org/10.12705/654.54

Sweet R. (1826) Sweet’s Hortus Britannicus. Part 2. London, James Ridgway. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.43792

Turrill W.T. (1915) 1538. Vitex keniensis. In: Diagnoses Africanae LXII. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1915: 44–48. https://doi.org/10.2307/4115448

van Wyk B., van Wyk P. (1997) Field guide to trees of southern Africa. Cape Town, Struik nature.

Vatke W. (1882) Plantas in Itinere Africano ab J.M. Hildebrandt collectas determinare pergit. Verbenaceae. Linnaea 43: 526–540.

Verdcourt B. (1989) (924) Proposal to Conserve the Name Vitex payos (Lour.) Merr. with a New Type (Verbenaceae). Taxon 38: 155–156. https://doi.org/10.2307/1220926

Verdcourt B. (1992) Verbenaceae. In: Polhill R.M. (ed) Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema.

WCSP (2018) World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [online]. Available from http://wcsp.science.kew.org/ [accessed 9 Mar. 2018].

White F. (coll. Angus A.) (1962) Forest flora of Northern Rhodesia. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

For material published before 1 January 2019, all rights are reserved. Copyright holders are Meise Botanic Garden and the Royal Botanical Society of Belgium. Permission to use this material must always be obtained from the Editor in chief, via the Editorial Office.

For further information on access, permissions and re-use of papers published in Plant Ecology and Evolution, please read our Open Access policy.