Assemblages of myxomycetes associated with three different substrates affected by forest wildfires
PDF

Supplementary Files

Supplementary file 1

Keywords

disturbance
ecological recovery
forest ecology
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
North Carolina
slime molds
Tennessee

How to Cite

Stephenson, S., Payal, N., Kaur, G. and Rojas, C. (2021) “Assemblages of myxomycetes associated with three different substrates affected by forest wildfires”, Plant Ecology and Evolution, 154(1), pp. 15-27. doi: 10.5091/plecevo.2021.1762.

Abstract

Background and aims – In late November and early December of 2016, forest wildfires occurred over portions of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (USA) and more than 4 000 ha were affected. Previous studies have shown that myxomycete assemblages can be greatly impacted as a result of this type of disturbance; after which, the recovery of the forest determines the availability of substrates for new colonisation. The objective of the project reported herein was to assess the impact of wildfires on the recovery of the assemblages of myxomycetes associated with three different substrates (forest floor leaf litter, the bark of living trees, and woody twigs) in two areas with different fire intensity.
Material and methods – Two study areas subjected to different fire intensity were selected and sampled 30 months after the wildfires. Myxomycetes were studied using the moist chamber culture technique as it applies to these organisms. Satellite imagery was used to determine forest recovery and similarity indices were used to compare experimental myxomycete assemblages among study areas and substrates. Historical data were used as a reference to contextualise the results.
Key results – A total of 38 species of myxomycetes representing 17 different genera were recorded from the two study areas. Samples from the lower intensity burn area yielded more myxomycetes than samples from the higher intensity burn area, with values of 84% and 59%, respectively. This same pattern was also observed for the number of recorded specimens (133 and 93, respectively). The comparison of experimental assemblages with previous data suggested that ground litter assemblages were still in early stages of recovery, whereas the assemblages associated with bark and twigs had recovered much faster.
Conclusion – The relatively higher intensity fire had more of an effect on myxomycetes than the relatively lower intensity fire. Myxomycete assemblages are resilient to wildfires and they recover differentially depending on the substrate they grow on.

https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2021.1762
PDF

References

Adamonytė G., Motiejūnaitė J. & Iršėnaitė R. 2016. Crown fire and surface fire: effects on myxomycetes inhabiting pine plantations. Science of the Total Environment 572: 1431–1439. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.02.160

Ahlgren I.F. & Ahlgren C.E. 1960. Ecological effects of forest fires. The Botanical Review 26: 483–533. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02940573

Avdan U. & Jovanovska G. 2016. Algorithm for automated mapping of land surface temperature using LANDSAT 8 satellite data. Journal of Sensors 2016: 1480307. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1480307

Blackwell M. & Gilbertson M.L. 1980. Sonoran Desert myxomycetes. Mycotaxon 11: 139–149.

Bowd E.J., Banks S.C., Strong C.L. & Lindenmeyer D. 2019. Long-term impacts of wildfire and logging on forest soils. Nature Geosciences 12: 113–118. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-018-0294-2

Brown S.P., Veach A.M., Horton J.L., Ford E., Jumpponen A. & Baird R. 2019. Context dependent fungal and bacterial soil community shifts in response to recent wildfires in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Forest Ecology and Management 451: 117520. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2019.117520

Dove N.C., Safford H.D., Bohlman G.N., Estes B.L. & Hart S.C. 2020. High‐severity wildfire leads to multi‐decadal impacts on soil biogeochemistry in mixed‐conifer forests. Ecological Applications 30(4): e02072. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2072

Gabel A., Ebbert E., Gabel M. & Zierer L. 2010. A survey of myxomycetes from the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Bear Lodge Mountains of Wyoming. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 89: 45–67.

Gilbert H.C. & Martin G.W. 1933. Myxomycetes found on the bark of living trees. University of Iowa Studies in Natural History 15: 3–8.

Härkönen M. 1977. Corticolous myxomycetes in three different habitats in southern Finland. Karstenia 17(1): 19–32. https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.1977.121

Harpe V.R., Moorhead L.C., Moore J.A.M. & Kivlin S.N. 2019. Fungal response to wildfire in southeastern forests: effects at the urban-forest interface. Middle Atlantic States Mycological Conference 2019. Available from https://trace.tennessee.edu/masmc/14 [accessed 19 May 2020].

Huete A.R. 1988. A soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Remote Sensing of Environment 25(3): 295–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/0034-4257(88)90106-X

Lado C. 2005–2020. An online nomenclatural information system of Eumycetozoa. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC. Madrid, Spain. Available from https://eumycetozoa.com [accessed 16 Sep. 2020].

Martin G.W. & Alexopoulos C.J. 1969. The myxomycetes. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.

Mataix-Solera J., Guerreno C., Garcia-Orenes F., Barcenas-Moreno G. & Torres M.P. 2009. Forest fire effects on soil microbiology. In: Cerdá A. & Robichaud P.R. (eds) Fire effects on soils and restoration strategies: 133–175. Science Publishers, Inc, Boca Raton, Florida.

Merino A., Fonturbel M.T., Fernández C., Chávez-Vergara B., García-Oliva F. & Vega J.A. 2018. Inferring changes in soil organic matter in post-wildfire soil burn severity levels in a temperate climate. Science of The Total Environment 627: 622–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.189.

Mueller-Dombois D. & Ellenberg H. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Novozhilov Y.K., Stephenson, S.L., Overking M., Landolt J.C. & Laursen G.A. 2007. Studies of Frostfire myxomycetes including the description of a new species of Diderma. Mycological Progress 6: 45–51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-007-0527-z

Stephenson S.L. 1988. Distribution and ecology of myxomycetes in temperate forests. I. Patterns of occurrence in the upland forests of southwestern Virginia. Canadian Journal of Botany 66(11): 2187–2207. https://doi.org/10.1139/b88-302

Stephenson S.L. 1989. Distribution and ecology of myxomycetes in temperate forests. II. Patterns of occurrence on bark surface of living trees, leaf litter, and dung. Mycologia 81(4): 608–621. https://doi.org/10.1080/00275514.1989.12025792

Stephenson S.L. 2011. From morphological to molecular: studies of myxomycetes since the publication of the Martin and Alexopoulos monograph. Fungal Diversity 50: 21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-011-0113-1

Stephenson S.L. & Stempen H. 1994. Myxomycetes: a handbook of slime molds. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Stephenson S.L. & Landolt J.C. 2009. Mycetozoans of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park: an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory project. Southeastern Naturalist 8(2): 317–324. https://doi.org/10.1656/058.008.0210

Stephenson S.L., Schnittler M., Mitchell D.W. & Novozhilov Y.K. 2001. Myxomycetes of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Mycotaxon 78: 1–15.

Stephenson S.L., Urban L.A., Rojas C. & McDonald M.S. 2008. Myxomycetes associated with woody twigs. Revista Mexicana de Micología 27: 21–28.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.