An escape from the Espinhaço Range: a new species of Paepalanthus subg. Xeractis (Eriocaulaceae) from the campos rupestres of Serra do Padre Ângelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil
PDF

Keywords

Atlantic Forest
campos rupestres
Critically Endangered
disjunction
Paepalanthus oreodoxus
Serra do Padre Ângelo

How to Cite

Andrino, C. and Gonella, P. (2021) “An escape from the Espinhaço Range: a new species of Paepalanthus subg. Xeractis (Eriocaulaceae) from the campos rupestres of Serra do Padre Ângelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil”, Plant Ecology and Evolution, 154(1), pp. 137-149. doi: 10.5091/plecevo.2021.1770.

Abstract

Background and aims – Recent botanical discoveries have highlighted the occurrence of campos rupestres in the Serra do Padre Ângelo (SPA), eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Here, we introduce the first new species of Paepalanthus subg. Xeractis to be described in the last three decades. Discovered in the SPA, it belongs to an emblematic lineage endemic to the campos rupestres of Minas Gerais.
Material and methods – The new species is described based on herbarium material and in situ observations. A morphological phylogenetic analysis was carried out by including the new species in a previously published character matrix. Its spatial distribution is discussed based on the obtained topology.
Key results – The new species is endemic to the SPA, but its closest related taxa are endemic to the Espinhaço Range (ER), ca 200 km distant. Its placement in the phylogeny supports the inclusion in P. ser. Fuscati, representing an escape from the ER. We present a clear morphological differentiation between the new species and its closest related taxa. Other similar cases of disjunct distribution among these areas of campos rupestres (SPA vs ER) are reviewed and discussed.
Conclusion – Based on the restricted distribution, allied with threats to the habitat, the new species is inserted in the IUCN category of Critically Endangered (CR). This new discovery reinforces the singularity of the SPA and the relevance of biodiversity inventories and conservation studies in the easternmost campos rupestres, and their classification as a priority area for conservation.

https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2021.1770
PDF

References

Alves R.J.V., Cardin L. & Kropf M.F. 2007. Angiosperm disjunction “campos rupestres - restingas”: a re-evaluation. Acta Botanica Brasilica 21(3): 675–685. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062007000300014

Alves R.V., Silva N.G., Oliveira J.A. & Medeiros D. 2014. Circumscribing campo rupestre – megadiverse Brazilian rocky montane savannas. Brazilian Journal of Biology 74(2): 355–362. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.23212

Andrino C.O. & Costa F.N. 2013. Paepalanthus subgen. Xeractis (Eriocaulaceae) na porção central da Cadeia do Espinhaço em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Rodriguésia 64(1): 75–89. https://doi.org/10.1590/S2175-78602013000100008

Andrino C.O., Trovó M. & Sano P.T. 2016. A field full of green stars: Paepalanthus multistellaris (Eriocaulaceae), a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 278(1): 55–61. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.278.1.6

Andrino C.O., Sano P.T., Inglis P.W., Hensold N., Costa F.N. & Simon M.F. 2021. Phylogenetics of Paepalanthus (Eriocaulaceae), a diverse Neotropical monocot lineage. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 95(1): 34–52. https://doi.org/10.1093/botlinnean/boaa070

Antar G.M., Harley R.M., Pastore J.F.B., Gonella P.M. & Sano P.T. 2021. Hyptidendron pulcherrimum Antar & Harley, sp. nov. (Hyptidinae, Lamiaceae) a new narrowly endemic species from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Adansonia, sér. 3 43(1): 1–8. https://doi.org/10.5252/adansonia2021v43a1

Antonelli A., Verola C.F., Parisod C. & Gustafsson A.L.S. 2010. Climate cooling promoted the expansion and radiation of a threatened group of South American orchids (Epidendroideae: Laeliinae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 100(3): 597–607. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01438.x

Bachman S., Moat J., Hill A.W., de la Torre J. & Scott B. 2011. Supporting Red List threat assessments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assessment tool. ZooKeys 150: 117–126. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.150.2109

Barbosa N.P.U. & Fernandes G.W. 2016. Rupestrian grassland: past, present and future distribution. In: Fernandes G.W. (ed.) Ecology and conservation of mountaintop grasslands in Brazil: 531–544. Springer International Publishing, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29808-5_22

Behling H. 2002. South and southeast Brazilian grasslands during Late Quaternary times: a synthesis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 177(1–2): 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-0182(01)00349-2

Campacci M.A. 2014. Hoffmannseggella alvarenguensis Campacci sp. nov. Coletânea de Orquídeas Brasileiras 10: 382–385.

Campacci M.A. 2015. Dryadella krenakiana Campacci sp. nov. Coletânea de Orquídeas Brasileiras 11: 418.

Colli-Silva M., Vasconcelos T.N.C. & Pirani J.R. 2019. Outstanding plant endemism levels strongly support the recognition of campo rupestre provinces in mountaintops of eastern South America. Journal of Biogeography 46(8): 1723–1733. https://doi.org/10.1111/jbi.13585

Costa F.N., Andrino C.O., Trovó M., Echternacht L. & Sano P.T. 2016. Three new micro-endemic species of Paepalanthus (Paepalanthoideae, Eriocaulaceae) from Serra do Ambrósio, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 247(2): 118–126. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.247.2.3

Costa F.N., Andrino C.O., Sano P.T., Trovó M. & Echternacht L. 2018. Paepalanthus (Eriocaulaceae) in the Central Espinhaço Range in Minas Gerais, Brazil: checklist, endemism, and nomenclatural changes. Phytotaxa 367(2): 133–144. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.367.2.3

D’Antonio C.M. & Vitousek P.M. 1992. Biological invasions by alien grasses, the grass/fire cycle and global change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 23: 63–87. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.23.110192.000431

Echternacht L., Trovó M. & Sano P.T. 2010. Rediscoveries in Eriocaulaceae: seven narrowly distributed taxa from the Espinhaço Range in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Feddes Repertorium 121(3–4): 117–126. https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.201000008

Echternacht L., Sano P.T., Trovó M. & Dubuisson J.-Y. 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of the Brazilian microendemic Paepalanthus subgenus Xeractis (Eriocaulaceae) inferred from morphology. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 167(2): 137–152. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01170.x

Echternacht L., Soldevila A. & Beirão M. 2020. Reestablishment and recircumscription of Paepalanthus elatus (Eriocaulaceae, Poales), a threatened micro-endemic species from northern Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 440(2): 171–185. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.440.2.6

Fernandes G.W., Barbosa N.P.U., Negreiros D. & Paglia A.P. 2014. Challenges for the conservation of vanishing megadiverse rupestrian grasslands. Natureza & Conservação 12(2): 162–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2014.08.003

Fernandes G.W., Barbosa N.P.U., Alberton B., et al. 2018. The deadly route to collapse and the uncertain fate of Brazilian rupestrian grasslands. Biodiversity and Conservation 27(10): 2587–2603. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-018-1556-4

Flora do Brasil 2020. Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. Available from http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/ [accessed 29 Aug. 2019].

Giulietti A.M. & Pirani J.R. 1988. Patterns of geographical distribution of some plant species from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais and Bahia, Brazil. In: Vanzolini P.E. & Heyer W.R. (eds) Proceedings of a workshop on Neotropical distribution patterns: 39–69. Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Rio de Janeiro.

Giulietti A. M., Pirani J.R. & Harley R.M. 1997. Espinhaço Range region, eastern Brazil. In: Davis S.D., Heywood V.H., Herrera-MacBryde O. & Hamilton A.C. (eds) Centres of plant diversity: a guide and strategy for their conservation vol. 3: 397–404. World Wide Fund for Nature/World Conservation Union, Cambridge.

Gonella P.M., Rivadavia F. & Fleischmann A. 2015. Drosera magnifica (Droseraceae): the largest New World sundew, discovered on Facebook. Phytotaxa 220(3): 257–267. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.220.3.4

Harding P.A. & Bohnke E. 2015. Hoffmannseggella campaccii P.A. Harding & Bohnke sp. nov. Coletânea de Orquídeas Brasileiras 11: 422–425.

Hensold N. 1988. Morphology and systematics of Paepalanthus subgenus Xeractis (Eriocaulaceae). In: Systematic Botany Monographs 23. The American Society of Plant Taxonomists, Michigan. https://doi.org/10.2307/25027709

Hensold N. 1996. Paepalanthus subg. Xeractis (Eriocaulaceae): notes and nomenclatural changes. Phytologia 81(1): 24–27.

Hensold N. 1998. Flora da Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais: Paepalantus subg. Xeractis (Eriocaulaceae). Boletim de Botânica da Universidade de São Paulo 17: 207–2018. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2316-9052.v17i0p207-218

Hueck K. 1953. Distribuição e habitat natural do Pinheiro do Paraná (Araucaria angustifolia). Boletim da Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras da Universidade de São Paulo – Botânica 10: 5–24. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2318-5988.v10i1p5-24

IBGE 1982. Folha SE-24-Y-C, Colatina, escala 1:250.000. Secretaria de Planejamento da Presidência da República, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Available from https://geobases.es.gov.br/cartas-topo-250 [accessed 7 Sep. 2020].

IBGE 1987. Folha SE.24 Rio Doce: geologia, geomorfologia, pedologia, vegetação, uso potencial da terra/Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. IBGE, Rio de Janeiro.

IBGE 2020. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Available from https://mapas.ibge.gov.br/bases-e-referenciais/bases-cartograficas/malhas-digitais [accessed 29 Aug. 2020].

IEF-MG 2019. Parque Estadual de Sete Salões. Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais. Available from http://ief.mg.gov.br/component/content/article/214 [accessed 28 Aug. 2019].

IUCN 2012. IUCN red list categories and criteria version 3.1. Second edition. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland & Cambridge, UK. Available from https://www.iucn.org/content/iucn-red-list-categories-and-criteria-version-31 [accessed 18 Sep. 2020].

Kollmann L.J.C. 2020. Novelties in Brazilian Begoniaceae II: a new species from Minas Gerais. Phytotaxa 437(3): 156–160. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.437.3.4

Leme E.M.C. 2015. Two new species of Orthophytum (Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa 205(4): 283–291. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.205.4.8

Leme E.M.C. & Kollmann L.J.C. 2013. Miscellaneous new species of Brazilian Bromeliaceae. Phytotaxa 108(1): 1–40. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.108.1.1

Leme E.M.C., Till W., Kollmann L.J.C., de Moura R.L. & Ribeiro O.B.C. 2014. Miscellaneous new species of Brazilian Bromeliaceae - III. Phytotaxa 177(2): 61–100. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.177.2.1

Leme E.M.C., Ribeiro O.B.C., Souza F.V.D., de Souza E.H., Kollmann L.J.C. & Fontana A.P. 2020. Miscellaneous new species in the “Cryptanthoid complex” (Bromeliaceae: Bromelioideae) from eastern Brazil. Phytotaxa 430(3): 157–202. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.430.3.2

Loeuille B. & Pirani J.R. 2016. Two new syncephalous species of Eremanthus (Asteraceae: Vernonieae) from southeastern Brazil. Phytotaxa 243(2): 128–136. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.243.2.2

Loeuille B., Semir J. & Pirani J.R. 2019. A synopsis of Lychnophorinae (Asteraceae: Vernoniae). Phytotaxa 398(1): 1–139. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.398.1.1

Lomolino M.V. 2004. Conservation biogeography: introduction. In: Lomolino M.V. & Heaney L.R. (eds) Frontiers of biogeography: new directions in the geography of nature: 293–296. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.

Lopes L.E., Marçal B.F. & Chaves A.V. 2016. The patchy distribution of the Pale-throated Serra-Finch Embernagra longicauda (Aves: Thraupidae) in the eastern Brazilian mountaintops: the overlooked campos rupestres of the Rio Doce valley. North-Western Journal of Zoology 12(2): 373–376.

MapBiomas Project 2020. Collection 4.1 of the Annual Land Use Land Cover Maps of Brazil. Available from http://mapbiomas.org/ [accessed 5 Sep. 2020].

Meira R.M.S.A., Peixoto A.L., Coelho M.A.N., et al. 2016. Brazil’s mining code under attack: giant mining companies impose unprecedented risk to biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 25: 407–409. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-016-1050-9

Mello Barreto H.L. 1956. Contribuição à ciência geográfica: Regiões Fitogeográficas de Minas Gerais. Boletim Geográfico XVI(130): 14–28.

Mello-Silva R. 2018. Land of the Giants: remarkable botanical findings highlight a new area for conservation in Brazil. Rodriguésia 69(2): 933–937. https://doi.org/10.1590/2175-7860201869245

Mendonça M.P. & Lins L.V. (orgs) 2000. Lista vermelha das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da flora de Minas Gerais. Fundação Biodiversitas, Fundação Zoo-Botânica de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte.

Moura V.P.G. 1975. Capões remanescentes de Araucaria angustifolia (Benth.) O. Ktze. entre 19° e 20° de latitude, nas proximidades do Rio Doce, MG. Brasil Florestal 6(23): 22–29.

Mourão B., Trovó M. & Mansanares M.E. 2017. New occurrences of Paepalanthus mollis Kunth var. mollis: extending the distribution of Paepalanthus subg. Xeractis Körn. (Eriocaulaceae) outside the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Checklist 13(3): 1–3. https://doi.org/10.15560/13.3.2109

Nazareno A.G. & Vitule J.R.S. 2016. Too many mining disasters in Brazil. Nature 531: 580. https://doi.org/10.1038/531580e

Nevado B., Contreras-Ortiz N., Hughes C. & Filatov D.A. 2018. Pleistocene glacial cycles drive isolation, gene flow and speciation in the high-elevation Andes. New Phytologist 219(2): 779–793. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15243

Neves A.C.O., Bedê L.C. & Martins R.P. 2011. Revisão sobre os efeitos do fogo em Eriocaulaceae como subsídio para sua conservação. Biodiversidade Brasileira 1(2): 50–66.

Oliveira M.J.R. 2000. Programa Levantamentos Geológicos Básicos do Brasil. Projeto Leste: Folhas Conselheiro Pena/São Gabriel da Palha - SE.24-Y-C-II/SE.24-Y-C-III (parte), escala 1:100.000. SEME/COMIG/CPRM, Belo Horizonte.

Projeto RADAMBRASIL 1983. Folhas SF 23/24 Rio de Janeiro/Vitória, geologia, geomorfologia, pedologia, vegetação e uso potencial da terra. Ministério de Minas e Energia, Rio de Janeiro.

QGIS Development Team 2019. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. Available from http://qgis.osgeo.org [accessed 20 Nov. 2019].

Reboita M.S., Rodrigues M., Silva L.F. & Alves M.A. 2015. Aspectos climáticos do estado de Minas Gerais. Revista Brasileira de Climatologia 11(17): 206–226. https://doi.org/10.5380/abclima.v17i0.41493

Silveira F.A.O., Negreiros D., Barbosa N.P.U., et al. 2016. Ecology and evolution of plant diversity in the endangered campo rupestre: a neglected conservation priority. Plant and Soil 403: 129–152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-015-2637-8

Siniscalchi C.M., Loeuille B.F.P. & Pirani J.R. 2016. A new species of Chresta (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) endemic to the Mata Atlântica Domain, Brazil. Phytotaxa 244(1): 80–88. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.244.1.6

Thiers B. continuously updated. Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/ [accessed 25 Jan. 2019].

Tissot-Squali M. & Sauthier L. 2017. Paepalanthus altamirensis, a new species of Paepalanthus subg. Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae) from Brazil. Phytotaxa 299(2): 252–260. https://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.299.2.9

Trovó M. & Stützel T. 2011. Diaspores in Eriocaulaceae: morphology, mechanisms, and implications. Feddes Repertorium 122(7–8): 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1002/fedr.201200003

Vasconcelos M.F. 2011. O que são campos rupestres e campos de altitude nos topos de montanha do leste do Brasil? Revista Brasileira de Botânica 34(2): 241–246. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-84042011000200012

Vasconcelos T.N.C., Alcantara S., Andrino C.O., et al. 2020. Fast diversification through a mosaic of evolutionary histories characterizes the endemic flora of ancient Neotropical mountains. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 287: 20192933. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.2933

Zappi D.C., Moro M.F., Meagher T.R. & Lughadha E.N. 2017. Plant biodiversity drivers in Brazilian campos rupestres: insights from phylogenetic structure. Frontiers in Plant Science 8: 2141. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.02141

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.