Author Guidelines

Editorial policies
Manuscript types
Research data policy
Manuscript submission
First submission
Text file
Formatting and style
Citation of taxon names
Text structure
Table and figure captions
Table and figure files
Manuscript pdf file
Supplementary files
Taxonomic manuscripts
Requirements for all taxonomic papers
Additional requirements for isolated taxonomic novelties
Taxonomic treatment



Plant Ecology and Evolution is a diamond open access journal that publishes papers about ecology, phylogenetics, and systematics of all plant groups (including algae, fungi, and myxomycetes), also covering related fields such as comparative and developmental morphology, conservation biology, evo­lution, phytogeography, pollen and spores, population biology, and vegetation studies. Submissions concerning (sub)tropical Africa are particularly welcome.

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To ensure the publication of high-quality academic content, the editorial team of Plant Ecology and Evolution, the authors, and the external reviewers are expected to fully adhere to the peer review process policy, the journal's publication ethics, and the policy on copyright and open access for the journal's content. Plant Ecology and Evolution is a diamond open access journal, meaning that authors do not have to pay any fees to submit or publish their work and that all papers are open access without embargo.

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Research article – This is a manuscript reporting the results of original research. For taxonomic manuscripts, more comprehensive work is preferred, and isolated taxonomic novelties should be written in a way that they are attractive and interesting for a wider international audience.

Review – This type of manuscript provides a survey of the current state of a specific topic and summarises previously published studies, rather than reporting new facts or analyses.

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The journal publishes original scientific research in English (British spelling – Oxford English Dictionary). The authors should make sure that the academic content of the paper can be fully understood and they are encouraged to have their manuscript checked for language.

Submissions in French might be considered in exceptional circumstances. These submissions should be by African researchers and deal with tropical African botany. Ideally, they should also deal with a topic that is of interest to a wider audience. The authors are however encouraged to seek help to publish in English in order to increase the potential impact of their research.

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For the purpose of reproducibility and to adhere to the FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) data principles, the authors are encouraged to make all newly generated data available and to acknowledge secondary data (i.e. data generated by others).

Authors should deposit newly generated data into domain-specific, data-type repositories that provide open access (e.g. GenBank, ForestPlots, GitHub, Dryad). References to data should be included in the manuscript (e.g. GenBank accession numbers). An overview of domain or type-specific repositories can be found in the Registry of Research Data Repositories. If the data does not fit into a specific domain or type, authors can use more general public repositories (e.g. Zenodo, Figshare). As a final option, authors can provide their data as supplementary files that are published along with the paper. For taxonomic studies, voucher specimens should be deposited in public herbaria, preferably in the country of origin.

When depositing data, pay attention to data quality. Describe the data by adding metadata and make the data comprehensible and accessible by explaining all terms, abbreviations, etc. Also, try to use open protocols, tools, and formats as much as possible.

Whenever possible, authors should cite the data as complete bibliographic references with DOI or URL, or give information on how the data can be accessed.

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Manuscript submission

Before submission, check your manuscript for consistency with the author guidelines.
Submit your manuscript by sending an email to


The email should contain the following files, each file name containing the first author’s initials, e.g. “AB”:
Cover letter – Fill in the cover letter template and convert it to pdf; AB_cover.pdf
Text file – the entire text as a separate Word file, without figures and tables; AB_text.doc, AB_text.docx
✓ Tables – All tables combined in a single Word file; AB_tables.doc, AB_tables.docx
✓ Figures – Each figure as a separate, high-quality file (format: tif, jpeg or pdf): AB_fig1.tif, AB_fig2.jpg, AB_fig3.pdf
Manuscript pdf – Combine in a single pdf: the text + tables + figures + tables and figure captions; AB_manuscript.pdf
Supplementary files – Optional. Additional supporting data are provided as separate supplementary files.
    Cover illustration – Optional. We welcome photographs that could be featured on the journal cover.

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In case of revision/resubmission of a previous manuscript, provide the following files (add the number of the revision, e.g. after one round of review: revision1, after 2 rounds of review: revision2):
✓ Cover letter – Make a cover letter including the manuscript ID number and indicate what changes have been done to address the comments made by the reviewers and the editor (point by point); AB_cover_revision1.pdf
✓ Revised text with track changes – AB_text_revision1_trackchanges.doc
✓ Revised text with track changes accepted – AB_text_revision1.doc
    Revised tables – If necessary.
    Revised figures – If necessary.
✓ Revised manuscript pdf – Combine in a single pdf: the revised text with track changes accepted + all (revised) tables and figures + tables and figure captions; AB_manuscript_revision1.pdf
    Revised supplementary files – If necessary.

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Text file


General format

Times New Roman, font size 12, left aligned, single line spacing, and continuous line numbering. Pages are numbered sequentially.

Structure and main headings

The IMRAD structure (INTRODUCTION, MATERIAL AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, REFERENCES) is the preferred default structure. Some flexibility is however allowed (e.g. taxonomic manuscripts might also have TAXONOMIC TREATMENT).


There are maximum three levels of headings. Main headings are in uppercase and centred (e.g. INTRODUCTION). Second level headings are in bold, left aligned, and only the first word is capitalised (e.g. Molecular analyses). Third level headings are in bold, left aligned, only the first word is capitalised, and are directly followed by an en dash and the text (e.g. Morphological characters – Corolla …).

Font styles

Bold is only used for second and third level headings, and for certain elements in captions and the taxonomic treatment. Italic is only used for generic/infrageneric names and in specimen citations, for gene abbreviations, for certain statistical symbols, and for journal titles. Underline is only used to indicate the major organs in a description.

Abbreviations and contractions

If abbreviations are used, they are followed by a full stop (sp., subsp., s.s., s.l., a.s.l., e.g., i.e., d.f., pers. comm., pers. obs.). A full stop is not added for contractions in which letters from the middle of the word are omitted (ca, vs, eds, Mt, Dr).


Numbers up to and including ten are spelled out, except when they are measurements (e.g. 6 mm). Numbers at the start of a sentence are always spelled out (e.g. Thirty-two plots …). Numerals are followed by a single space, then by the unit (e.g. 24 cm).

Standard symbols

SI units and SI-derived unit symbols are used for measurements (cm, mol, kg), as well as some non-SI units (s, min, h, d, ha).

Date format

Use day, month abbreviation, and year (e.g. 10 Jan. 2016, 14 Jun.–28 Jul. 2013). Or as alternative use month, year (e.g. data collected in September 2019), or day, month (15 February).

Use of en dash

En dash is used for all ranges (measurements, elevation range, page number range, etc.), without spaces (e.g. 2.5–5 mm, 10–14 stamens). It should not be used when using a range with a preposition: do not write “from 10–15 cm” but write “from 10 to 15 cm”. The en dash is also used for an enclosed phrase – such as this one – within a sentence (note the spaces around the en dashes). Finally, en dash is used in third level headings and abstract headings. Em dashes are not used.

Geographical coordinates

The preferred format is degrees minutes seconds. Use the prime symbol ′ for minutes and the double prime symbol ″ for seconds. There is no space between the elements, and a comma between latitude and longitude (e.g. 50°55′41.5″N, 4°19′44.4″E).

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Scientific names

Taxon names are written in full (Genus species) in the abstract and again in the main text when mentioning a taxon for the first time. The genus name is only written in full for the first species in a list of congeneric species (e.g. Vangueria infausta, V. pygmaea), or when a sentence begins with a genus name. Only generic and infrageneric names are italicised.

Taxonomic authorities

Author names are added when mentioning a taxon for the first time. Authors are abbreviated following the International Plant Names Index, without spaces (e.g. K.Schum.). Author names can be omitted in the main text when available elsewhere (e.g. table, supplementary file, taxonomic treatment).

Additional formatting for taxonomic treatments

See below in the guidelines for taxonomic manuscripts.

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Title page

Running title – Include a short title of max. 75 characters, spaces included.

Full title – The title should be informative and concise. The words are not capitalised (except proper nouns and supra-generic names). Taxonomic authorities are omitted in the title. For taxonomic manuscripts, a higher rank (e.g. family) is indicated in parentheses if the title includes generic or infrageneric names, e.g. “Three new species of Tricalysia (Rubiaceae) from Atlantic Central Africa”.

Authors and affiliations – Provide the full names of all authors and their affiliations (i.e. institution, city, country; no full postal address necessary). Each author is followed by a superscript number that is associated with the appropriate affiliation (except when all authors have the same affiliation).

Corresponding author – One of the authors should be designated as the corresponding author by adding a superscript asterisk behind the name. Mention the e-mail address of the corresponding author below the affiliations (only one email address allowed, no phone number).


Structured abstract – Each paragraph starts with an appropriate heading in bold followed by an en dash (e.g. Background and aims –, Material and methods –, Key results –, Conclusion –). The abstract should read independently from the manuscript and not include references or abbreviations. New taxa names should be mentioned but no taxonomic authorities. The abstract should not exceed 300 words.

Keywords – The abstract should be followed by up to ten keywords (ordered alphabetically and separated by semicolons).

Manuscripts in French – Include an English translation of the full title, the abstract, and the keywords.


The Introduction should provide a literature review that puts the manuscript into context and allows readers outside the field to understand the purpose and significance of the study. It should define knowledge gaps and address why this particular study is important and necessary. If relevant, the appropriate hypotheses about the research should be mentioned. The Introduction should end with the overall aim and specific objectives of the study.

Material and methods

The Materials and methods should provide enough detail to allow other researchers to replicate the study. Acronyms of consulted herbaria can be listed here. Specific information and/or protocols for new methods should be included in detail. If methods are well established, authors may cite the papers where those are described in detail, but the manuscript should include sufficient information to be understood independently.

All equipment, software, data, and code should be cited appropriately. When specialised equipment is mentioned, the manufacturer’s details should be given. When referring to software (including R packages), mention the version and cite it as a bibliographic reference (e.g. FigTree v.1.4.4 (Rambaut 2018), R package vegan v.2.5-6 (Oksanen et al. 2019)). Databases, indexes, and datasets should also be cited as bibliographic references (e.g. Index Herbariorum (Thiers continuously updated), International Plant Names Index (IPNI 2020)).

For geographic maps, the use of open-source software and data is encouraged (e.g. QGIS). Copyright requirements are mentioned under Table and figure files.

All newly generated data should be made available and it is recommended to deposit the data in public repositories. Authors are expected to follow our Research data policy.


The Results should only present the findings of the study and citing other literature is usually not appropriate. By default, Results and Discussion are not mixed. Avoid redundancy and do not repeat data in both graphical and tabular form. Make sure to refer to and explain in detail all tables, figures, and supplementary files. Referring to data that is not provided (i.e. data not shown) is strongly discouraged.


The Discussion should interpret and describe the significance of the results in light of what was already known, and explain the new insights that emerged. It should not be a repetition of the Results, but instead refer to the literature and demonstrate how the study has changed our knowledge about the research topic. Refer to the objectives mentioned in the Introduction and demonstrate if these were met or not. If you formulate the objectives as questions, you should answer those questions.


An optional summary of the findings in light of the objectives and suggestions for future research. This can also be included as a last paragraph in the Discussion.

Supplementary file captions

When supplementary files are associated with the manuscripts, provide a short caption for each supplementary file (e.g. Supplementary file 1 – Additional phylogenetic trees from the MrBayes analysis.).


Acknowledge collaborators who did not meet the criteria for authorship but contributed to the study, including people who supplied photographs or made drawings. Preferably use their full names. Mention funding sources (include grant numbers), provide permit numbers, and give recognition to institutes or organisations that made the work possible.

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Citation in the text

Single author: (Breteler 2018), Breteler (2018)
Two authors: (Köhler & Majure 2020), Köhler & Majure (2020)
Three or more authors: (Droissart et al. 2019), Droissart et al. (2019)

When referring to a specific page: (De Block 2018: 443), De Block (2018: 443)

Multiple references are listed in chronological order and separated by semicolons. Multiple references sharing the same authorship are grouped, years separated by commas, and ordered chronologically (Fisher 2012, 2014; Blackwell et al. 2013, 2017; Adams et al. 2014; Wright & Baker 2017). Letters (a, b, etc.) are added after the date for papers with identical authorship and year (Van de Vijver et al. 2014a, 2014b).

References should be cited as “in press” only if the paper has been accepted for publication. These references are mentioned in the Reference section. Otherwise, the terms “in prep.” (in preparation), “unpubl. res.” (unpublished results), “pers. obs.” (personal observation), or “pers. comm.” (personal communication) are used (e.g. Bonaventure Sonké et al. unpubl. res., Erik Smets pers. comm.). Referring to these categories should however be avoided as much as possible. Categories as “submitted” or “in review” are not accepted. None of these other categories should be mentioned in the References.


References are listed in alphabetical order, based on the surname of the first author. If two first authors share the same surname, the order is based on the first initial of each author.

References sharing the same first author surname and initial are arranged according to the following order:
1) Single-authored papers are listed first and arranged chronologically.
2) Two-authored papers are then listed, arranged alphabetically based on surname of the second author; when papers share the same authorship in this list, they are arranged chronologically.
3) Three-or-more-authored papers are then listed, arranged chronologically. When three-or-more-authored papers share the same year of publication, they are grouped alphabetically according to surname of second author, surname of third author, etc. In such group, the first reference is identified by letter “a”, the second reference by “b”, etc.

Italic is only used for generic/infrageneric names and journal titles. Bold and underline are not used. Journal titles are written in full. A DOI should be provided for all references where available.

Journal article

One author

Dormann C.F. 2002. Herbivore-mediated competition between defended and undefended plant species: a model to investigate consequences of climate change. Plant Biology 4(5): 647–654.

Two authors

Lehndal L. & Ågren J. 2015. Herbivory differentially affects plant fitness in three populations of the perennial herb Lythrum salicaria along a latitudinal gradient. PLOS ONE 10(9): e0135939.

Between 3 and 6 authors

Darbyshire I., Goyder D.J., Wood J.R.I., Banze A. & Burrows J.E. 2020. Further new species and records from the coastal dry forests and woodlands of the Rovuma Centre of Endemism. Plant Ecology and Evolution 153(3): 427–445.

More than 6 authors

Berg M.P., Kiers E.T., Driessen G., et al. 2010. Adapt or disperse: understanding species persistence in a changing world. Global Change Biology 16(2): 587–598.


Mason R.L., Gunst R.F. & Hess J.L. 2003. Statistical design and analysis of experiments: with applications to engineering and science. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

Book chapter

Arcand N.N. & Ranker T.A. 2008. Conservation biology. In: Ranker T.A. & Haufler C.H. (eds) Biology and evolution of ferns and lycophytes: 257–283. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Book in a series (e.g. flora)

Clayton W.D., Phillips S.M. & Renvoize S.A. 1974. Gramineae (Part 2). In: Polhill R.M. (ed.) Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Clayton W.D. 1989. Gramineae. XXIV. Paniceae. In: Launert E. & Pope G.V. (eds) Flora Zambesiaca: 10(3): 1–192. Flora Zambesiaca Managing Committee, London.

Contribution in proceedings

Cleaver C.M., Schoettle A.W., Burns K.S. & Connor J.J. 2015. Limber pine conservation strategy: recommendations for Rocky Mountain National Park. In: Ramsey A. & Palacios P. (eds) Proceedings of the 63rd Annual Western International Forest Disease Work Conference: 81–82. Washington Department of Natural Resources, Olympia.


Bauters K. 2018. Scleria revised: a molecular approach towards a new classification. PhD thesis, Ghent University, Belgium. Available from [accessed 1 Jan. 2021].


Mateo-Ramírez L. & Riina R. 2020. Croton calcareus Riina & Mateo-Ram. taxonomic treatments database. Dataset. Available from [accessed 1 Jan. 2021].


R Core Team 2020. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. Available from [accessed 1 Jan. 2021].

QGIS Development Team 2020. QGIS Geographic Information System. Version 3.16. Open Source Geospatial Foundation. Available from [accessed 1 Jan. 2021].


IUCN Standards and Petitions Committee 2019. Guidelines for using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 14. Prepared by the Standards and Petitions Committee. Available from [accessed 1 Jan. 2021].

Thiers B. continuously updated. Index Herbariorum: a global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium. Available from [accessed 1 Jan. 2021].

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Citation in the text

When starting a sentence, use “Figure(s)” or “Table(s)”, otherwise use “fig.”, “figs”, or “table(s)”. E.g. “Figure 1 shows …”, “The localities are listed in table 1 …”, “The petals (fig. 2A–E) and the stipules (figs 3B, 4D) …”.

When referring to a figure in another paper, write the word in full (e.g. … (Bitencourt et al. 2020: figure 2).).


Table and figure captions should be as long as necessary, but as short as possible. Taxonomic authorities should be omitted. A figure composed of several subfigures is treated as a single figure with each subfigure labelled with a capital letter (A, B, etc.).

Table 1 – Taxonomical list of all observed taxa in this study. Unidentified species are given a provisional letter code. C = cosmopolitan, SA = sub-Antarctic region, U = unknown, AMS = Ile Amsterdam, (AMS) = Ile Amsterdam but yet undescribed.

Figure 2Phialiphora valida. A. Habit. B. Node and stipule, showing the bases of two non-basal leaves and three branches. C. Inflorescence showing the involucrate bracts. D. Higher order bract. E. Ovary, calyx, flower bud. F. Corolla, stamens, style, and stigma. G. Fruit, lateral view. A–G from De Block, Groeninckx & Rakotonasolo 2349 (BR). Drawn by Antonio Fernandez.

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Table and figure files


Authors should be aware that all material for which they retain the copyright will be published under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) and that they approve of this.

The authors are responsible for securing the right to reproduce any material that has already been published or is copyrighted elsewhere. If such material is present within the manuscript, authors should provide proof that the owner has given consent for re-use. If necessary, certain content can be explicitly excluded from the Creative Commons License. In any case, proper attribution to the copyright holder should be provided.

Authors are encouraged to use open-source software to create figures and geographical maps (e.g. QGIS). If proprietary software is used (e.g. Google Maps, ArcGIS), the authors are responsible for checking if copyright applies to the output and if attribution is required.


Tables that are part of the main text should be relevant for understanding the results of the study. Carefully consider the number and size of tables: having too many or too long tables is discouraged. Other tables with a more supportive role should be provided as supplementary files (e.g. tables related to the Material and methods, long lists of samples/species, GenBank accession numbers, plot characteristics, environmental variables).

Tables and their captions should be provided in a single document in MS Word format (.doc or .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf).


Figures that are part of the main text should be relevant for understanding the results of the study. Carefully consider the number of figures: having too many figures is discouraged. Other figures with a more supportive role should be provided as supplementary files (e.g. additional phylogenetic trees, elaborate maps with sampling locations, experimental design, additional statistics).

Each figure should be provided as a separate file, while the captions are provided separately at the end of the text file. Figures are provided as high-quality images and scale bars are added where necessary.


Related images should be assembled into a single figure whenever possible. Each subfigure is labelled with a capital letter (A, B, etc.) that is preferably placed in the upper or lower left corner of the subfigure. Letters are in Arial font with an appropriate font size.

Raster images

Used for photographs, maps, etc. The following extensions are accepted: .tif and .jpg.

Vector-based images

Used for line drawings, graphs, phylogenetic trees, etc. These images are preferably provided in pdf format.


Figure width is either a single column (85 mm wide) or a double column (up to 177 mm wide). Figure height is maximum 235 mm (preferably shorter to leave space for the caption).

Resolution and colour

Line drawings and graphs are in black and white with a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi. Greyscale and colour images have a minimum resolution of 450 dpi. When using colour, use an inclusive colour palette.

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Manuscript pdf file

Combine the text file with all tables, figures, and their respective captions into a single pdf file. This manuscript pdf file should also be part of the submission.

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Supplementary files

Authors are encouraged to deposit their data in public repositories (see Research data policy). Additional supporting data can however also be provided as separate supplementary files. The number of supplementary files is limited to six per paper. Supplementary files will be available online only and will not be copy-edited, so make sure that the data is clearly and succinctly presented, and that the style conforms with the rest of the manuscript. Ideally, the supplementary files should not be platform-specific, and should be viewable using free or widely available tools (e.g. .pdf, .xlsx, .csv).

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Taxonomic manuscripts


Taxonomic papers need to demonstrate the general relevance of the work. They should present the broader context and additional analyses (e.g. morphology, anatomy, phylogenetics, biogeography, evolution, etc.) are encouraged. Although its scope is global, the journal prioritises publishing taxonomic papers from the (sub)tropics.

Taxonomic manuscripts follow the same guidelines as outlined above under Text file. The IMRAD structure should be followed as close as possible and the addition of the Taxonomic treatment at the end is recommended. Pay special attention to the citation of taxon names. Taxonomic nomenclature follows the rules of the most recent edition of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants. Nomenclatural types for newly described taxa are deposited in a public herbarium and the acronyms follow the Index Herbariorum. All references cited in the taxonomic treatment (valid publication of a basionym, synonym, etc.) are included in the References. A list of taxonomic novelties is provided at the end of the Text file.


The morphological characters, phylogeny, ecology, geography, reproductive biology, etc. of the new taxa, which are the basis for their distinctiveness, should be discussed when available. The discovery of the new taxa should be put in a broader context, rather than simply describing the taxa. If appropriate, consider presenting this information under a separate header (e.g. Bakalin & Vilnet 2020, De Block et al. 2020).

Identifier for fungi

For names of new taxa, new combinations, names at new ranks, or replacement names for organisms treated as fungi (including fossil fungi and lichen-forming fungi), authors are required to cite the identifier for the name issued by a recognised repository (e.g. MycoBank, Index Fungorum) in the protologue.

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The journal might consider publishing isolated taxonomic novelties, i.e. a new taxon described outside the framework of a revision or monograph. However, such manuscripts should be written in a way that they are attractive and interesting for a wider international audience.


Provide context of the higher taxon to which the novelty belongs, and refer to recent taxonomic literature on the group (e.g. other novelties recently published, taxonomic history). Explain whether the description of the novelty fits in a broader framework (e.g. flora, research line, conservation efforts).


In addition to the requirements for a discussion mentioned above, motivate why it is important to describe the new taxon separately. When available, provide additional information about the new taxon (e.g. morphology, phylogenetic placement, conservation assessment) and about the area where the new taxon is found (e.g. climate, soil, level of endemism, conservation efforts, other collecting efforts or other new species recently described). For examples, see Fleischmann et al. 2020, Quintanar et al. 2020.


A figure clearly showing the diagnostic characters of the new taxa. This is often a line drawing but can also be pictures, or a combination of both.


The new taxa should be compared to related (or sympatric, or similar) taxa in a dichotomous key and/or table.

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For emphasis, some terms are in bold in the taxonomic treatment:
- Introduction of a novelty: sp. nov., gen. nov., var. nov., subsp. nov., etc.
- Introduction of a new synonym: syn. nov.
- Introduction of a new combination, of a name at new rank: comb. nov., stat. nov.
- Introduction of illegitimate or invalid name: nom. illeg., nom. inval.
- Designation of a lectotype, neotype, or epitype in the manuscript: designated here.

Treatment of a taxon

The treatment of a taxon includes the following elements in the following order. Third level headings are used to introduced the elements 2 to 12. Elements 4 to 12 should be provided as much as possible, depending on the information available.

1) Name of the taxon (citation of tables and figures) – Type:
2) Diagnosis – A diagnosis in English (or Latin) for new taxa.
3) Description – Full description of the taxon with major organs underlined. A diagnosis must be present if there is no description.
4) Distribution – With reference to a distribution map, if provided.
5) Habitat and ecology
6) Phenology
7) Vernacular name
8) Use
9) Etymology
10) IUCN conservation assessment – First mention the category and the criteria (e.g. “Critically Endangered: CR B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii)”), followed by the rationale. Also encouraged for taxa that are not new.
11) Additional material examined
12) Notes

New taxon

Englerodendron libassum Jongkind & Breteler, sp. nov. (figs 2, 3) – Type: LIBERIA • Margibi county, forest edge at Kpan Town lagoon; 6°11′N, 10°29′W; 7 Mar. 2020; fr.; Jongkind 14290; holotype: BR; isotypes: K, P, WAG.

Diagnosis – This species resembles E. hallei (Aubrév.) Estrella & Ojeda by its unijugate leaves but differs by its 2.7 cm long lateral racemes which are at most 1 cm long in E. hallei, and by the shape of its leaflets that are not caudate as in E. hallei but gradually short acuminate at the apex.

Accepted names

For a previously published name, the taxonomic authority should be followed by the citation of the protologue, with page number. This reference should also be included in the References section.

Crotonogyne giorgii De Wild. (De Wildeman 1914: 381) (figs 1–3; tables 1, 2) – Type: D.R. CONGO • Bonkula; Sep. 1913; De Giorgi 1327; holotype: BR[BR0000008894007].


Homotypic synonyms are mentioned first in a single paragraph, listed in chronological order, with citation of the original publications, and followed by the citation of the type. Heterotypic synonyms are mentioned next in separate paragraphs, listed in chronological order, with citation of the original publications, and followed by the citation of the types. Illegitimate or invalid names are mentioned last, listed in chronological order, with citation of the original publications. En dashes (–) are used as separators within a paragraph.

Crotonogyne caterviflora N.E.Br. (Brown 1905: 114) (fig. 4; table 1) – Neomanniophyton caterviflorum (N.E.Br.) Pax & Hoffm. (Pax & Hoffmann 1912: 118) – Type: LIBERIA • Sinoe Basin; 1904; Whyte s.n.; holotype: K.
Neomanniophyton chevalieri Beille (Beille 1917: 295) – Crotonogyne chevalieri (Beille) Keay (Keay 1955: 139), syn. nov. – Type: CÔTE D’IVOIRE • Between Soubré and Yaou (Sanvi); 28 Mar. 1907; Chevalier 17783; holotype: P; isotype: K.

New combination

A new combination includes the basionym with a full and direct reference to its authorship and valid publication. This reference should also be included in the References section.

Cyperus testui (Cherm.) Reynders, comb. nov.Pycreus testui Cherm., Archives de Botanique Tome 4, Mémoire 7: 13. 1931 (Chermezon 1931: 13) – Type: CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC • Marais du Brini; 21 Jun. 1921; G.M.P.C. Le Testu 2860; lectotype: P[P00573015], designated here; isolectotypes: P[P00573013, P00573014].


When a lectotype (or neotype, epitype, etc.) is designated in the manuscript itself, add the words “designated here” in bold. E.g. “lectotype: BR, designated here”. When the lectotype (or neotype, epitype, etc.) was designated before, a citation is needed and no bold is used. E.g. “lectotype: AD, designated by Prescott (1984: 319)”.

Specimen citations

Specimen citations are grouped per country (one paragraph per country). Each citation is separated by a bullet point (•), and each element within the citation is separated by a semicolon. If data is missing, list only the available elements (except collector information, see format).

Specimen citations include the following elements in the following order.
1) Country, in uppercase, followed by a bullet point •
2) If specimens are grouped by geopolitical unit(s) within a country (e.g. state, province), use: COUNTRY – Region • … • … . – Region • … • … .
3) Locality
4) Geographical coordinates (for format, see Formatting and style)
5) Elevation
6) Collection date (for format, see Formatting and style)
7) Phenology (fruits = fr., flowers = fl., flower buds = fb., sterile = st.)
8) Collector name + collection number in italic; if no collector name is available, use “s.col.”; if no number is available, use “s.n.”; followed by the herbarium acronyms, and if available, add a barcode number between square brackets.

MADAGASCAR – Mahajanga Province • Bongolava; 15°36′42.8″S, 47°35′32.7″E; 185 m; 18 Mar. 2010; fl.; De Block, Groeninckx & Rakotonasolo 2339; BR[BR0000005519811], TAN • Bongolava; 15°36′49.2″S, 47°35′21″E; 215 m; 18 Mar. 2010; fl.; De Block, Groeninckx & Rakotonasolo 2342; BR[BR0000005519644], TAN.

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